COP 27 Daily Bulletin

The United Nations Climate Change Conference COP27 opened on 6 November with the key aim of ensuring full implementation of the Paris Agreement. (Photo: UNFCCC/Flikr)

By Team TA

This bulletin was updated daily by curating official sources of information for COP 27 designed by UNFCCC and other UN bodies.

19 November (Day 13)

Closing plenary to take place today and parties continue to negotiate on the critical issue of loss and damage finance.

Landmark deal on loss and damage

After days of intense negotiations that stretched into early Sunday morning (20 Nov) in Sharm el-Sheikh, countries at the latest UN Climate Change Conference, COP27, reached agreement on an outcome that established a funding mechanism to compensate vulnerable nations for ‘loss and damage’ from climate-induced disasters. 

Negotiators were finally able to reach conclusions on the most difficult items of the agenda, including a loss and damage facility – with a commitment to set up a financial support structure for the most vulnerable by the next COP in 2023 – as well as the post-2025 finance goal, and the so-called mitigation work programme, that would reduce emissions faster, catalyze impactful action, and secure assurances from key countries that they will take immediate action to raise ambition and keep us on the path towards 1.5°C. 

The crucial questions of which countries must provide financing for the fund and which will be eligible to benefit from it have been left to future negotiations.

18 November (Day 12)

The last scheduled day of the Sharm El-Sheikh Climate Change Conference featured continued talks and few evident outcomes. 

Loss and damage

COP 27 Presidency came up with a draft decision on loss and damage and urged parties to compromise and close the final text.

The G77 and China, led by Pakistan have been strong and vocal, calling for the creation of the fund at COP 27, while developed countries led by the United States (US) in particular, have been vehemently opposing this. All eyes will be on the US to see if it will continue to oppose the move.

Bolivia for the Like-Minded Developing Countries (LMDC) provided a strong response calling out that the developed countries always “promise” ambitious goals and large contribution on financial resources however not in “practice”. It showcased the commitment of USD 100 billion per year (by 2020) made by them in Copenhagen in 2009 which developing countries were still waiting to be fulfilled. It spelled out that the developed countries are pushing very hard the “big lie” of limiting to 1.5C in the context of net zero by 2050 which is not enshrined in the Convention and its Paris Agreement and that the narrative is not in line with equity, CBDR and climate justice

An informal stocktake plenary was convened late night on 17 Nov to assess the status of negotiations and to plan for a successful conclusion of work on time.

17 November (Day 11)

COP President Shoukry called on parties to engage in a spirit of compromise and be cognizant that “our work here impacts lives.”

According to negotiators from developing countries on the finance issues, developed countries are unwilling to advance on their commitments, and push texts in an attempt to broaden the donor base to ‘emerging economies’ or ‘high income’ developing countries, which developing countries see as deviating from the UNFCCC and the Paris Agreement provisions.

There are also strong efforts from developed countries to push the financial responsibilities to the multilateral development banks as well as the private sector.

Loss and Damage

The most watched issue of loss and damage finance is completely deadlocked, with strong resistance from developed countries to having any financial entity or mechanism in the UNFCCC to address loss and damage in a meaningful to address the dire needs of developing countries.

Santiago Network on Loss and Damage (SNLD)

One major and significant outcome is agreement on establishing an Advisory Board of the Santiago Network on Loss and Damage (SNLD) as part of the Warsaw International Mechanism (WIM) on loss and damage. Agreement was also reached that there would also be a “hosted secretariat that will facilitate its work, to be known as the Santiago network secretariat” which will help provide technical assistance to developing countries to avert, minimise and address loss and damage. The Advisory Board will oversee and guide the work of the Santiago network secretariat.

16 November (Day 10)

Negotiations moved slowly on several issues, particularly finance. For other issues, texts were forwarded to the COP Presidency or ministers for further consideration. Talks on the Adaptation Fund Board also reached compromise.

An early version of the 20- pager overarching cover decisions emerged based on parties’ views. Such cover decisions attempt to encapsulate progress made and major decisions reached at a COP and indicate a direction of travel by highlighting key political messages. Significant differences were evident in the Head of Delegation consultations on what different countries see as important elements to include and highlight. 

Emergency Press Conference

The frustration of small island states, least developed countries and Latin American nations was clear in an “emergency press conference” they called. Speakers called for a new fund—or facility—for loss and damage as a “minimum” outcome from this meeting. Anything less, they said, and COP 27 will have failed to deliver climate justice.

Peoples’ Declaration on Climate Justice

At the peoples’ plenary, representatives of Indigenous Peoples, environmental groups, children and youth, women and gender, and persons with disabilities expressed solidarity with one another and support for the Peoples’ Declaration on Climate Justice.

Negotiations to continue on

Negotiations remain ongoing on the overarching cover decisions and more, including:

  • Global Goal on Adaptation;
  • Loss and damage finance;
  • Work programme for urgently scaling up mitigation ambition and implementation;
  • Article 6 (cooperative implementation);
  • Finance, including the new collective quantified goal on climate finance; and
  • Response measures.

Loss and Damage

Consultations on finance for loss and damage were held. Split largely down developed – developing country lines, views remain far apart. The disagreement is rooted in whether to work out a process that could lead to a financial arrangement in 2024, or to establish a financial facility or fund now and work through the details in the next two years. Developed countries support the former and developing countries the latter.

Brazil is Back: Participation of Brazilian President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva

Large crowds waited outside the room where he delivered the speech, and cheered throughout. Acknowledging that “these are hard times,” he said we “need more confidence and determination, and we need more leadership to avoid further global warming.” As Lula focused on forests, others took heart in the announcements that the Beyond Oil and Gas Alliance (BOGA) welcomed new members pledging not to exploit further oil and gas reserves.

Other finance items

On most other finance items, however, negotiators continued to struggle to move past long-held positions and bridge their differences. By the evening, talks on long-term finance, the Standing Committee on Finance, and guidance to the Global Environment Facility (GEF) and Green Climate Fund (GCF) seemed either stuck or were moving very slowly.

These discussions matter greatly for implementation. Developing countries need support, and assurances that money will be available when they make plans. The major climate funds benefit from guidance on the parties’ priorities when they raise and disburse funds.

15 November (Day 9)

Ministers gave high-level speeches and engaged in a small number of consultations. Negotiations at the climate talks in Sharm elSheikh have reached a frenzied pace as delegates shift gears in an effort to bridge stark divergences on many issues in week two of the talks.

Informal stocktaking plenary

At an informal stocktaking plenary convened by COP 27 President Sameh Shoukry morning of
Monday, 14 Nov, the Egyptian Foreign Minister called on Parties to shift gears and complement the technical discussions with more political engagement.

Presidency Consultations

Many called for a focus on implementation, expressing differing views on how to, as one phrased it, “infuse” implementation into the decision. For three developing country groups, equity and common but differentiated responsibilities (CBDR) were central, with one urging recognizing implementation gaps throughout. Several pointed to implementing all aspects of the Glasgow Climate Pact, including phasing down coal, reducing methane emissions, supporting just transitions, and providing adaptation finance. Several shared a preference for text on accountability on all aspects of the Glasgow Climate Pact in a balanced manner, while two groups preferred improving transparency and called for deleting the term accountability.

Climate Finance

At the climate finance dialogue, Oxfam, who have been tracking progress on the mobilising of the USD 100 billion per year said that developed countries have failed to deliver a much needed climate finance to developing countries, and communities.

“Developed countries are saying they have reached USD 83.3 billion in 2020, of which 68.3 billion has been public finance. However, it’s not all is as it seems. Oxfam estimates the real value, that is climate specific net assistance, to be between USD 21 to 24.5 billion. This is a third of what developed countries are reporting. To make matters worse, 70% of the public finance, we estimate to be in the form of loans, pushing developing countries further into debt”, explained the Oxfam representative.

Roundtable on Pre-2030 Ambition

The co-facilitator of the roundtable, the Minister from Denmark stressed the importance of limiting temperature rise to 1.5-degree C, adding that there is a common responsibility which is also differentiated (between developed and developing countries), adding that developed countries and emerging economies have a special responsibility to do more.

Bangladesh for the Least Developed Countries (LDCs) said that what was lacking is the political will to act, stressing that the 1.5 degree C goal is a “red-line” for the LDCs and the planet and called for a programme to urgently scale ambition up in this critical decade.

“Our understanding is that the Annex-I Parties have not met their pre-2020 commitments together and several individually as well. But the real question, according to the best science, is the cumulative emissions until 2030. So pre- 2030 ambition must be measured in terms of whether countries are staying within their fair share of the carbon budget, taking note of both the historical period and in the future. By this scientific criterion some developed countries must reach net zero even before 2030 and 2050 is not enough at all. So this is where we must begin talking about opportunities for ambition.” said India during the roundtable.

Focus on fossil fuels

“more fossil fuel extraction means more destructive loss and damage experienced by island nations and other vulnerable communities around the world. So a COP that does not address fossil fuels directly will be a COP that is complicit in the devastation of my people,” said Tuvalu. The country through its representative also said that the country has issued a formal call at COP27 for nation-states to join Tuvalu and Vanuatu in developing a Fossil Fuel Non-Proliferation Treaty, based on the principles of justice and equity.

Negotiations continue

Many issues remained unresolved as brackets surrounding unagreed text remained, including on:

  • Glasgow–Sharm El-Sheikh Work Programme on the Global Goal on Adaptation;
  • Second review of the long-term global goal and progress toward achieving it;
  • Koronivia Joint Work on Agriculture;
  • Article 6; and
  • Response measures.

COP 27 President Shoukry laid out his plan to help bring parties together on some, but not, all issues. Specifically, political discussions, facilitated by a pair of ministers, one from a developing and developed country each, will center on:

  • The mitigation work programme;
  • The Global Goal on Adaptation;
  • The new collective quantified goal on finance;
  • Article 6 and related issues; and
  • Financing for loss and damage.

14 November (Day 8)

The second week of COP 27 began with a recognition of the significant volume of work ahead. At the close of the first week, thirteen issues remained outstanding from the Subsidiary Bodies alone.

Informal Stocktake Plenary 

COP President Sameh Shoukry outlined three tracks of work for the week. He explained that technical work would continue on the 13 agenda items left outstanding from the Subsidiary Bodies, spanning mitigation, adaptation, loss and damage, agriculture, gender, and response measures. Presidency consultations will also continue on the cover decisions and other issues identified in the opening plenaries. Ministerial consultations will begin Wednesday, 16 November.

High-level Ministerial Roundtable on Pre-2030 Ambition 

The roundtable on pre-2030 ambition aimed to leverage high-level engagement to ramp up mitigation ambition. Current efforts are not on track to stay below the Paris Agreement’s temperature goals. As outlined by the Secretariat, the implementation of current pledges would increase emissions by 10.6% by 2030, and put the world on track for a 2.5°C warmer world by the end of the century. A few ministers from climate-vulnerable countries called the report “heartbreaking.”

Target of USD 100 billion per year

Many countries called for stepped-up delivery of existing pledges, as well as promises for new climate finance. Germany and Canada, which spearheaded a progress report on the delivery of the USD 100 billion target, committed to undertake a “lessons learned” exercise to help ensure the future goal is met.

Global Goal on Adaptation

The discussions on the Global Goal on Adaptation left off with the Co-Facilitators seeking the guidance of the COP Presidency. There are calls for a strong outcome at this COP, to mark the Glasgow–Sharm El-Sheikh Work Programme’s halfway mark.

Loss and Damage

Discussions on loss and damage also proved difficult. As in previous years, agreement on the governance of the Warsaw International Mechanism (WIM) eluded. A few countries argue that the Paris Agreement has sole authority of the body, but many countries prefer joint authority, under the Paris Agreement and the Convention.

An initial text emerged on loss and damage finance. It was welcomed by some who noted it was needed to “show our ministers something,” but many said this first step still didn’t represent all countries’ views.

It seems that substantial additional efforts, including to come to a shared understanding of the mandate for this item, will be required.

12 November (Day 7)

First week at COP 27 ends. After intense negotiations extending into late hours in the first week of the climate talks that began on 6 Nov, the UNFCCC Subsidiary (SBs) Bodies closed on 12 Nov, with agreement to transmit draft negotiating texts on the key issues in ‘brackets’ for further work and consideration in the second week. Civil society organizations held actions throughout the day to remind delegates of their responsibility, and a climate march proceeded through the UNFCCC Blue Zone.

13 November will be a break day, as delegates will take some rest and gear up for the second week, followed by Gender day on 14 November.

Lack of consensus

The draft texts in brackets reflect a lack of consensus among Parties and negotiations will continue this week, with the hope that consensus can be reached by 18 Nov, when the talks are to end. The different agenda items are being considered under the ongoing 27th meeting of the Conference of Parties to the UNFCCC (COP27), the 17th meeting of the Parties to the Kyoto Protocol (CMP 17) and the 4th meeting of the Parties to the Paris Agreement (CMA 4).

Contentious issues: Climate finance and loss and damage

An overarching highly contentious issue across all relevant agenda items is the issue of climate finance, which is expected to be resolved only at the political level with the engagement of ministers, which includes the most watched issue of loss and damage finance.

Loss and damage

The most contentious key issue is the funding arrangements for loss and damage which was conducted in ‘informal-informal’ sessions as well during the first week. On 12 November at the informal consultations, South Africa for the Africa Group did not support the proposal by the United States (US) to include the “understanding” in the decision text which was read out by the Egyptian Presidency before the adoption of the agenda item on funding arrangements for loss and damage. The African Group reiterated its stand on agreeing on the “form” of the funding arrangements before delving into the “process” stressing that whatever final decision taken should focus on a “rapid” response, elaborating that existing mechanisms such as the AF, the GEF and the GCF have their own programmatic and Board cycles which is bound by time.

USD 100 billion goal

On the delivery of the USD 100 billion goal, Ecuador for G77 and China expressed several
concerns over the critical dilution in language from “developed” countries to “donors” stating that climate finance is a commitment and not a donation by developed countries.

Developing countries especially the Like-Minded Developing Countries (LMDC), China, and Cook
Islands for the Alliance of Small Island States (AOSIS) also expressed their frustration over the
long-standing calls for a common definition of climate finance which hinders the tracking of progress of the USD 100bn goal and often results in double counting. Most developing country groups called for an annual progress report on the USD 100 billion goal which was not supported by the US.

COP 27 requires phase-down of fossil fuel, says Indian delegation

Citing the Sixth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Indian negotiators told the Egyptian COP27 presidency that meeting the long-term goal of the Paris Agreement “requires phase down of all fossil fuels”. The Indian negotiators said the basic principles of common but differentiated responsibilities, equity, and nationally determined nature of climate commitments under the Paris Agreement “need to be strongly emphasised in the cover decision text”.

11 November (Day 6)

Negotiators stress on closing the discussions and finalizing the agreement text

The end of the first week of the Sharm El-Sheikh Climate Change Conference is nearing. Co-facilitators across many negotiation rooms reminded delegates of the need to conclude consideration of the items. In most cases delegates did not manage to “clean up” their negotiating texts in the allotted number of negotiation slots. In some instances, this was because even when there is general agreement on what parties want to express, it takes time to agree on precise language that adequately conveys parties’ consensus.

On most issues however, the disagreements run deeper and require even more discussions and creative solutions to iron them out. To make space for such discussions, co-facilitators across a number of issues resorted to asking parties to convene in “huddles” to prepare bridging proposals and were frantically on the hunt for additional meeting slots. 

Global Goal on Adaptation

Developing countries made a firm call for the establishment of a framework on the global goal
on adaptation (GGA) as a substantive outcome at the ongoing negotiations under the GlasgowSharm el-Sheikh work programme on the GGA.

Global Stocktake closes

The global stocktake of the Paris Agreement (GST) is a process for taking stock of the implementation of the Paris Agreement with the aim to assess the world’s collective progress towards achieving the purpose of the agreement and its long-term goals.

The first GST will run from 2021 to 2023 and will be repeated every 5 years thereafter.

The GST facilitates the assessment of global collective progress on three thematic areas:

  • Mitigation
  • Adaptation
  • Means of implementation and support

The GST also considers the social and economic consequences of response measures and efforts to address loss and damage. The collective assessment takes inputs on equity into consideration and makes use of the best available science in a cross-cutting manner.

The outcomes of the GST will inform countries on updating and enhancing, in a nationally determined manner, their climate actions and support, as well as on enhancing international cooperation for climate action.

USA’s participation

The major attraction beyond the negotiations was the strong presence of the United States. US Special Presidential Envoy for Climate John Kerry was seen around the venue throughout the day. House Speaker Nancy Pelosi made a surprise appearance, together with a cohort of other members of Congress. Even President Joe Biden came to Egypt to hold a press conference to underscore his administration’s resolve towards climate action.

Children and Youth Pavillion

Ensuring that the voice of Youth and Future Generations is heard loud and clear is one of the objectives of the COP27 Presidency. For the first time ever at a UNFCCC Conference, children and young people is having a dedicated space at COP27 alongside world leaders, ministers, prominent non-State actors and other delegates.

Designed to amplify children and youth voices within global climate policymaking, the COP27 Children and Youth Pavilion is entirely led by young people and has been co-created and run by influential child and youth networks.

India becomes part of Mangrove Alliance For Climate

Mangrove Alliance for Climate (MAC) is an intergovernmental alliance that seeks to expand and hasten the progress toward the conservation and restoration of mangrove ecosystems. India is among the first five countries to join the MAC, other than Australia, Japan, Spain, and Sri Lanka. The action aims to scale up and accelerate the conservation and restoration of the mangrove forests. Union Minister for Environment, Forest, and Climate Change, Bhupender Yadav has said that India is home to one of the world’s largest remaining areas of mangroves- the Sundarbans, and has extensive experience in mangrove restoration that can be used to aid global measures.

10 November (Day 5)

On the fifth day of the Sharm El-Sheikh Climate Change Conference, negotiators met throughout the day and into the night to discuss various finance-related issues, cooperative implementation under the Paris Agreement (Article 6), and scaling up mitigation ambition and implementation, among others.

Scientists Warn against Limits of Adaptation

At COP27 in Sharm el-Sheikh, Egypt, leading global experts from the natural and social sciences presented ten essential insights on climate change since 2021.

In the scientific synthesis report, scientists from around the world emphasize and unpack the complex interactions between climate change and other drivers of risk, such as conflicts, pandemics, food crises and underlying development challenges. The scientists find that the potential to adapt to climate change is not limitless.

Rising sea levels capable of submerging coastal communities and extreme heat intolerable to the human body, are examples of ‘hard’ limits to our ability to adapt. They also highlight that over 3 billion people will inhabit ‘vulnerability hotspots’ – areas with the highest susceptibility to being adversely affected by climate-driven hazards – by 2050, double what it is today.

The scientists further outline that persistent dependence on fossil fuels exacerbates major vulnerabilities, notably for energy and food security, and that deep and swift mitigation to tackle the drivers of climate change is immediately necessary to avert and minimize future loss and damage. 

Climate Finance

On the USD 100 billion goal, developing countries called for a substantive decision.

Several developing countries underscored the need for a common definition of climate finance, while several developed countries considered the overview of operational definitions provided by the SCF to be sufficient and favored concluding consideration of the matter.

Adaptation Fund

Developing countries expressed strong concerns over the unfulfilled pledges of developed countries to the Adaptation Fund (AF) during informal consultations.

South Africa spoke for the Africa Group and said that the issue of resource mobilization remains a “systemic failure” by developed countries, adding that “They continue to lie to us, make false pledges and continue to announce pledges and not fulfil them.” It also said that the UNFCCC secretariat should become an accountable mechanism and Parties must hold the developed countries to account. China and India also echoed the Africa group and other developing countries in expressing their concerns regarding the unfulfilled pledges.

Loss and damage

There was broad acknowledgement of the gap between needs and availability of loss and damage finance and the urgency to address this, especially with regard to funding for addressing loss and damage, which refers to ex-post action. Many pointed to existing processes and initiatives outside the UNFCCC targeting loss and damage, which was met with some developing countries cautioning against diverting attention and emphasizing that any adopted solution should conform to UNFCCC principles.

9 November (Day 4)

Yesterday was Finance day at Sharm El-Sheikh Climate Change Conference. Various side events explored finance-related issues, ministers discussed expectations for the new collective quantified goal on climate finance, and negotiators advanced work on the provision of guidance to climate funds.

Key highlights from discussions on climate finance related issues

Developing countries expressed frustration over the lack of delivery by developed countries on their pledges. These include a target set in Glasgow in 2021 to “at least double” adaptation financing from 2019 levels by 2025.

South Africa, for the AFRICAN GROUP, supported by other developing country groups, called for developed countries that have made pledges to fulfill them, describing this as a major source of trust deficit.

For another, the magnitude of finance needs is significant and growing, with estimates putting them in the trillions of dollars. Against this background, many developed countries emphasized the need to broaden the contributor base and focus increasingly on the mobilization of private finance. US Special Presidential Envoy for Climate John Kerry underscored “governments don’t have that kind of money.” 

In his opening remarks, UNFCCC Executive Secretary Simon Stiell admonished against repeating the mistakes related to the USD 100 billion goal, underscoring that transparency and accountability must be ensured—both to build trust and to inform investment decisions.

Kristalina Georgieva, Managing Director, International Monetary Fund, underscored the need to gain clarity on the scale of investment needs and on the definition of climate finance. She noted trust being eroded from both unmet funding promises and lack of clarity on how funding is used and with what impacts.

Ministers suggested, among others:

1. the goal should be set at a quantitative level that reflects the scale of funding needed to achieve the objectives of the Paris Agreement;

2. broadening the contributor base towards all that are able to contribute;

3. special attention to support for least developed countries and small island developing states;

4. mitigating investment risks to increase developing countries’ access to private capital;

5. reforming the Bretton Woods system to ensure climate risk is mainstreamed in finance institutions; and

6. launching a global-level debt cancellation initiative to free up developing countries’ fiscal space.

Climate activists and civil society organizations started with their actions on 9 Nov. (Photo: IISD/ENB)

8 November (Day 3)

The busy third day of the Sharm El-Sheikh Climate Change Conference saw delegates going room to room, trying to keep up with back-to-back negotiating sessions on a variety of topics, from finance to adaptation and loss and damage. In parallel, world leaders issued calls for increased climate action in the High-Level Segment.

Thematic days to start with Finance day on 9 November

9 November will be Finance Day. Finance is the cornerstone for implementing climate actions and scaling up ambition and hence it has been at the heart of the UNFCCC process and the Paris Agreement negotiations. Finance day will address several aspects of the climate finance ecosystem.

India on loss and damage

India said loss and damage was neglected for far too long and it was high time the issue was addressed, adding that the cost was being borne by people least responsible for loss and damage. India also said the funding arrangements be consensus based with easy and fast disbursement during or after climate change induced disasters. It should have a separate techno-economic body for approving attribution and funds; be grant based since loans of any kind would increase the misery and debt of affected communities and that there should be event specific funding depending on the loss of lives and property. It further added that the principle of CBDR should be the corner stone of any funding arrangement.

India Pavillion at COP 27

Union Minister of Environment, Forest and Climate Change, Bhupender Yadav inaugurated the India Pavilion at the 27th Session of Conference of Parties of the UNFCCC (COP 27) Sharm El-Sheikh, Egypt, on Sunday. India is hosting a pavilion with the theme of LiFE- Lifestyle for Environment at COP 27. The Pavilion has been designed to send out the message of LiFE through various audio-visuals, Logo, 3D models, set up, decor and side events.

India comes in support of Early Warnings for All action plan

The plan calls for initial new targeted investments of $ 3.1 billion between 2023 and 2027, equivalent to a cost of just 50 cents per person per year to achieve UN Secretary-General Antonio Guterres’ goal of ensuring that everyone on Earth is protected by life-saving warnings against increasingly extreme weather in the next five years. 

The Presidents of Mozambique and Malawi, Prime Ministers of Finland and the Netherlands, and Ministers and senior officials from France, China, India, Japan, Pakistan were among those attending the high-level event and pledging financial, practical or technological support for the Early Warnings for All initiative. 

Climate finance

Saudi Arabia, for the LIKE-MINDED GROUP OF DEVELOPING COUNTRIES (LMDCs), called for more work on defining climate finance, noting the Standing Committee on Finance’s report unduly emphasizes certain definitions that favor a small group of parties.

Costa Rica, for the INDEPENDENT ALLIANCE OF LATIN AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN (AILAC), said the COP decision should identify the need to: scale up public finance; and provide additional grants-based public finance for adaptation, and for loss and damage.

The UK expressed disappointment that the USD 100 billion goal was not met and acknowledged parties’ frustration. He reiterated his government’s commitment to triple adaptation funding to GBP 1.5 billion by 2025, and the target of spending GBP 11.6 billion on international climate finance.

The Gambia, for the LEAST DEVELOPED COUNTRIES (LDCs), called for a roadmap for delivering on the USD 100 billion goal, and for equal consideration of mitigation and adaptation. He underlined the need for a single, operational definition of climate finance.

Other discussions on loss and damage

One developing country called for recognition of the finance gap and for new resources for developing countries to address loss and damage, highlighting that this is an issue of survival. Another called for a way to address slow onset non-economic loss and damage, such as loss of cultural heritage.

A Head of Government, supported by several parties, called for a new funding pathway to help accelerate the transition to renewable energy and climate resilience, in the form of a “fit-for-purpose” multilateral loss and damage response fund.

Adaptation Agenda

COP27 President Shoukry announced the Sharm el-Sheikh Adaptation Agenda to enhance resilience for 4 billion people living in the most climate vulnerable communities by 2030. The Adaptation Agenda is the first comprehensive global plan to rally both State and non-State actors behind a shared set of 30 Adaptation Outcomes that are required by 2030 across food and agriculture, water and nature, oceans and coastal, human settlements and infrastructure systems as well delivery across key enablers of as planning and finance.

Food Systems Pavillion

The first official Food and Agriculture Pavilion at a UNFCCC COP was unveiled at Sharm El-Sheikh. There will be dedicated discussions on food and agriculture in this pavilion hosted by by the United Nation’s Food and Agriculture Organization, CGIAR and The Rockefeller Foundation at the climate conference.

Net Zero Expert Group warns against greenwashing

The High‑Level Expert Group on the Net Zero Emissions Commitments of Non-State Entities (“Expert Group”) was tasked by the United Nations Secretary General with addressing net zero pledges and commitments from non‑state actors including corporations, financial institutions, and local and regional governments.

“We urgently need every business, investor, city, state and region to walk the talk on their net zero promises.We cannot afford slow movers, fake movers or any form of greenwashing”, said UN Chief António Guterres.

“Too many of these net-zero pledges are little more than empty slogans and hype”, group chair and Canada’s former environment minister, Catherine McKenna, said during a news conference launching the report. “Bogus net-zero claims drive up the cost that ultimately everyone will pay,” she said.

International Drought Resilience Alliance

At the initiative of the Presidents of Senegal, Macky Sall, and Spain, Pedro Sánchez, leaders from over 25 countries and 20 organizations launched the International Drought Resilience Alliance to accelerate action and help countries to be better prepared for future droughts. The Alliance will be bolstered by new political commitments, including a Euro 5 million seed fund announced by Spain, co-convener of the event with Senegal, to support the work of the Alliance and catalyze a process to mobilize more resources for this agenda, and a commitment made by the President of Kenya William Ruto to plant 5 billion trees in the next 5 years, and 10 billion trees in 10 years.

Yearbook of Climate Action 2022

In step with COP27’s focus as the ‘Implementation COP’, the event also explores how non-State actors are ‘making good on promises’ to achieve a resilient, net zero future. To take stock of progress towards this, the Champions released their ‘Yearbook of Global Climate Action 2022’. The Yearbook reports annually on the progress of non-State entities towards their climate goals, and is proof that – while obstacles remain – businesses, investors, cities, states and regions are building resilience and powering rapid changes in the real economy.

7 November (Day 2)

The second day of the conference opened with a line-up of more than 100 Heads of State and Government arriving for the Sharm El-Sheikh Climate Implementation Summit. Leaders’ statements continued till the evening and will resume on 8 November.

UNFCCC Executive Secretary Simon Stiell asked leaders to: ensure consistency between the visions expressed in their high-level statements and their delegations’ positions in the negotiations; convene their cabinet ministers to strengthen domestic climate plans and step up implementation; and reflect the urgency of the climate crisis in all their work.

Some key statements from the leaders

Noting that Africa is spending up to 9 percent of its gross domestic product on tackling climate change, President of Gabon Ali Bongo Ondimba called for financing for adaptation and just transitions, and said his country has absorbed close to 1.5 Gigatons of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere since COP 15 in 2009.

Filipe Jacinto Nyusi, President of Mozambique, said a fair energy transition must be gradual and reduce negative impacts on economic development. He said Mozambique will continue using its own natural resources, including gas, in the medium term.

Faustin-Archange Touadéra, President of the Central African Republic, underscored that rich countries and top polluters are “the ones most to blame for endangering humanity,” urging those countries to financially support poorer countries’ climate action.

Climate Finance

On climate finance definitions, views diverged on whether further work is required by the SCF and the need for a political-level discussion, with developed countries saying definitions should reflect the bottom-up spirit of the Paris Agreement and many developing countries calling for a common definition.

On the USD 100 billion goal, developing countries stressed the target remains unmet, calling for annual progress reports to be issued through 2027.


A number of developing countries and groups shared that a large share of pledges remain outstanding and developing countries’ adaptation finance needs are not being met. They called for referencing the Glasgow Climate Pact “pledge” to at least double the provision of climate finance for adaptation to developing countries from 2019 levels by 2025.

On the Adaptation Committee’s report, parties highlighted the need to: enhance engagement with the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC); update methodologies and tools to assess adaptation needs; and revamp the adaptation knowledge portal. They also noted the report should be revised to reflect parties’ agreement on common timeframes for NDCs.

Loss and damage

A developing country group called for swiftly moving to textual work to avoid having to resort to last-minute compromises.

Developed countries led by the United States (US) and the European Union (EU) wanted to clarify the scope and timeline of the loss and damage agenda item and wanted assurances that it would have nothing to do with liability or compensation.

Enhanced solidarity and cooperation on loss and damage is not charity but is climate justice, said Pakistan on behalf of the Group of 77/China, in outlining its expectations. The G77 Chair reiterated the importance of the principles of equity and common but differentiated responsibilities between developed and developing countries under the UNFCCC and the Paris Agreement

6 November (Day 1)

The United Nations Climate Change Conference COP27 opened today with the key aim of ensuring full implementation of the Paris Agreement.

One year on from hosting COP26 in Glasgow, the UK handed over the Presidency of the United Nations Climate Change Conference to Egypt as world leaders meet at Sharm el Sheikh for COP27.

UN Climate Change Executive Secretary asked governments to focus on three critical areas at COP27:

(a) Transformational shift to implementation of the Paris Agreement and putting negotiations into concrete actions.

(b) Cementing progress on the critical workstreams of mitigation, adaptation, finance and loss and damage, while stepping up finance notably to tackle the impacts of climate change.

(c) Enhancing the delivery of the principles of transparency and accountability throughout the UN Climate Change process.

The Egyptian COP27 Presidency has set out an ambitious vision for this COP that puts human needs at the heart of our global efforts to address climate change. The Presidency intends to focus the world’s attention on key elements that address some of the most fundamental needs of people everywhere, including water security, food security, health and energy security.

Following a procedural opening on Sunday, 6 November, to enable work to begin quickly, Monday (7 Nov) and Tuesday (8 Nov) will be the World Leaders Summit with the presence of more than 100 Heads of State or Government. The World Leaders Summit provides all Heads of State or Government with the opportunity to set the stage for COP27.

Climate Action undertaken by a diversity of stakeholders working to support the implementation of the Paris Agreement will be showcased throughout COP27.

The COP27 Presidency will host a series of events in thematic days from 9-17 November which will highlight practical solutions to the challenge of climate change and explore approaches to immediately scale up the implementation of these solutions in key sectors with all stakeholders.

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in: Logo

You are commenting using your account. Log Out /  Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )

Connecting to %s